Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of the Gugging Swallowing Screen Test in the Early Period of Hemispheric Stroke
Karaca Umay Ebru1, Gurcay Eda1, Bahceci Kadir1, Ozturk Erhan1, Yilmaz Volkan1, Gundogdu Ibrahim1, Ceylan Tijen2, Eren Yasemin3, Cakci Aytul1
1Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara
2Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Otolaryngology-Head&Neck Surgery Clinic, Ankara
3Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospita, Neurology Clinic, Ankara

Objective: The Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) test is a bedside screening test for the assessment of all phases of swallowing in acute-period stroke. The present study aimed to evaluate whether GUSS was effective for the detection of dysphagia in the early period after stroke, as well as to conduct Turkish translation, and validity and reliability studies. Methods: The scale was administered to 113 patients within the early periods of stroke (within 30 days after stroke). The procedures were scored by two blinded independent expert observers. Cronbach?s alpha and item-to-total correlations were used to assess internal consistency. Inter-rater reliability studies were also conducted. Endoscopic evaluations were performed within the first 4 hours following the application of the screening tests. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) method was used to describe the validity of measures. Results: The mean time since the stroke was 14.34±5.23 days. Internal consistency was found to be good with Cronbach's ? values between 0.844 and 0.846. The intraclass correlation coefficient scores indicated excellent inter-rater reliability with scores ranging from 0.881 to 1.000. A strong negative correlation was found between FEES stage and the total T-GUSS scores of the raters (r= -0.547 p<0.001; r= -0.515, p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: T-GUSS has good internal consistency and very good reliability between raters, as well as good correlation with FEES evaluation regarding the detection of aspiration risk in the early period of stroke in Turkish patients.

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